The Provincial Flag
is of a golden lion on a red compartment and an ancient oared galley was
adopted by proclamation on February 24, 1965. It was based on the provincial
Coat of Arms. The ship refers to the Maritime location of the province, as well
as its former important shipbuilding industry. A ship in full sail was seen on
the Great Seal of the symbols of the Royal House of Brunswick and is also found
in the arms of Great Britain and of the old Duchy in Normandy. The legal
authority for the flag is derived from Queen Victoria's Royal Warrant in 1868.
Provincial Coat of Arms On May 26, 1868, Queen Victoria assigned
armorial bearings to New Brunswick, consisting of a shield of arms depicting
a gold lion on a red background, and below it an ancient galley in the water
with oars in action. The design was based in part on the first Great Seal of
New Brunswick which featured a sailing ship on water. The lion alludes to the
arms of the Duchy of Brunswick in Germany (two gold lions on a red field) which
was a possession of King George III at the time the Province of New Brunswick
was established in 1784.
On Sept. 25, 1984, at a public ceremony in
Fredericton, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II signed a royal warrant granting
augmentations to the provincial arms. The additions were all symbolic of New
Brunswick and consist of a crest resting on a golden royal helmet over the
shield, supporters on either side and a compartment below. They were granted by
The Queen, in the words of the royal warrant, "for the greater honor and
distinction" of New Brunswick and to mark the 200th anniversary of the
establishment of the province in 1784.
On April 5, 1989, the augmented
armorial bearings of the province were entered in Volume I, page 16, in the new
Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges of Canada, in a special ceremony in
the Legislative Assembly chamber in Fredericton. Governor General Jeanne
Sauvé, Lt.-Gov. Gilbert Finn and Premier Frank McKenna witnessed this
registration -- the first of its kind in Canadian history.
The granting of
armorial bearings or coats of arms is the prerogative of the Sovereign. In
Canada, the exercise of this prerogative now rests with the Governor General,
who has established the Canadian Heraldic Authority at Government House to
administer this responsibility. The authority's officers of arms are headed by
the herald chancellor, deputy herald chancellor and chief herald of Canada.
The New Brunswick arms, both the grants of 1868 and 1984, were prepared at the
College of Arms in London.
Armorial bearings are both an honor to the
recipient from the Crown and a means of identification. In the case of a
province, they are also a symbol of public authority. Provincial arms are more
formally and properly called "armorial bearings of public authority and of
particular purpose of Her Majesty The Queen in right of New Brunswick."
Arms are derived from their ancient use by knights as a means of
identification. The shield and crest both served this purpose, with the crests
being worn by knights on their helmets. New Brunswick's crest of an Atlantic
salmon leaping from within a coronet of gold maple leaves and bearing on its
back St. Edward's crown, is located over the shield and rests on a gold royal
helm. This golden helmet is a special mark of favor to represent provincial
authority in honor of New Brunswick's bicentennial year. It is normally
reserved for the arms of members of the Royal Family and of the Dominions. The
mantling of gold and red, held in place by a wreath around the helmet,
originally served as protection from the sun and takes its colors from the two
main tinctures on the shield.
The supporters on either side of the shield
are white-tailed deer with antlers, each with a small shield or escutcheon
suspended from a friendship collar of Maliseet wampum, the original of which is
in the New Brunswick Museum. One shield bears the Union Badge representing the
British connection in New Brunswick's history and the early English, Scots and
Irish settlers; the other bears the Royal Arms of France, the symbol of public
authority during the French regime, and refers to the French settlement in the
The compartment which bears the supporters and the shield is a
grassy mound covered with the provincial flower, the purple violet, and the
young ostrich fern or fiddlehead.
The motto, Spem Reduxit, taken from the
first Great Seal of the Province, is at the base of the arms on a ribbon and
can be translated as hope restored. This refers to the establishment of the
province as a home for the refugee settlers, the United Empire Loyalists, whose
arrival here prompted the creation of New Brunswick by the British government.
Named for the German duchy of Brunswick-Lunenburg of
King George III
73,437 sq. km or 28,354 sq. mi.
506 - area code must be dialed for long distance calls
to areas within and outside New Brunswick
Year - Population
1851 - 183,800
1891 - 321,263
1911 - 351,889
1931 - 408,200
1951 - 515,700
1961 - 597,900
1971 - 634,600
1991 - 723,900
9.8 persons per km²
Urban 49%, rural 51%
June 23"C- 73"F
July 26"C- 79"F
August 25"C- 77"F
September 19"C -66"F
Spem Reduxit - "Hope was restored"
Provincial Tree Balsam fir
Forests cover nearly 90% of the total land area
of New Brunswick. The only unforested areas are the rocky glaciated highlands,
the agricultural areas, and the boglands of the Maritime Plain. Most of the
forestland contains both deciduous and coniferous trees. In the highland
regions the principal species are sugar maple, yellow birch, hemlock, spruce,
and pine. The Maritime Plain has a mixture dominated by red spruce, balsam fir,
hemlock, pine, maple, and birch. Insect infestation, particularly by the spruce
budworm, has resulted in substantial losses of commercial timber. Wildlife in
the forest regions is diverse. White-tailed deer, moose, and black bear are
common. Fur bearing animals such as the beaver, muskrat, mink, red fox,
squirrel, chipmunk, and rabbit are also plentiful. Migratory birds, such as the
blue heron, nest in the area in summer. Shorebirds include the gull, tern,
cormorant, and puffin. The rivers, streams, and surrounding waters abound with
fish. Among freshwater fish are trout, pike, bass, and Atlantic salmon.
New Brunswick, the largest of
Canada's three Maritime provinces, is nestled under Quebec's Gaspé
Peninsula and beside the State of Maine. Its northern border also includes the
Restigouche River and the Baie des Chaleurs, home of a fiery phantom ship. The
eastern boundary is entirely coastal - the Gulf of St. Lawrence and
Northumberland Strait - and delightfully dotted with warm, sandy beaches...the
warmest salt water north of Virginia. Chignecto Bay and the 24-kilometre
(15-mile) wide Isthmus of Chignecto, which connects New Brunswick to Nova
Scotia, form part of New Brunswick's southern border. The rest of it is the Bay
of Fundy. Its tides - the highest and wildest in the world - have carved a
New Brunswick covers 73,440 square kilometres in
roughly a rectangle shape about 242 kilometers (150 miles) from east to west
and 322 kilometers (200 miles) north to south. Its northern reaches are
dominated by mountains that are part of the Appalachian Range. Mt. Carleton at
820 metres (2,690 feet), is the highest. The interior of the province is mostly
rolling plateau virtually covered by forests. The eastern region is fairly
flat, the southern terrain is rugged.
The magnificent St. John River, often
called The Rhine of North America, splits the province from north to south.
Anglers, white-water rafters and sailors also appreciate the Miramichi,
Restigouche, Nepisiguit, Salmon, St. Croix and Tobique rivers as well as Grand,
Chiputneticook, Magaguadavic and Oromocto lakes.
the New Brunswick route map)
The black-capped chickadee (Parus Atricapillus) was the winner in the contest
staged by the New Brunswick Federation of Naturalists. Lieutenant-governor
George F. Stanley issued a proclamation designation the chickadee the official
provincial bird in August of 1983. Selection of the provincial bird was made by
way of votes cast through a newspaper campaign for four candidates: the
black-capped chickadee, the grey jay (commonly known as the gorby or
moosebird), the American robin and the white-throated sparrow. New Brunswick's
official bird is a small, tame acrobat distinctly patterned with a combination
of black cap and bib with white cheeks and buff sides. Its distinctive
"chickadee-dee-dee" is heard throughout the year. Its clear high whistled
"phe-be, phe-be-be" is a signal that spring has arrived. Scattering in pairs in
April, the chickadee nests in natural cavities, woodpecker holes, bird houses
or rotten stumps which they line with plant fibres, down, fur or feathers. The
male is a devoted father, assisting his mate in all the home-building tasks,
incubating the eggs and raising the young. Both male and female show concern
for their eggs and affection toward the baby birds.
The Purple Violet (Viola Cucullate) was named the
official floral emblem of New Brunswick on December 1, 1936. This particular
flower was chosen through a co-operative effort of the school children and the
Women's Institutes of the province. This violet is the state flower of
Illinois, New Jersey and Rhode Island. The bird's-foot violet is the state
flower of Wisconsin. A modest plant of some five to ten inches in height, the
Purple Violet grows in moist meadows and along stream banks. Besides this
violet, there are eight other species which have a purple or blue blossom.
There are also yellow and white violets. The violets are thought of as spring
flowers, but sometimes they flower as late as October.
was designed by the Loomcrofters of Gagetown, NB and officially
adopted in 1959. It is registered at the Court of The Lord Lyon, King of Arms
in Scotland. New Brunswick's three major industries are lumbering, agriculture
and fishing. These are represented in the design by the forest green of
lumbering, the meadow green of agriculture, the blue of coastal and inland
waters, all interwoven with gold, a symbol of the province's potential wealth.
The red blocks represent the loyalty and devotion of the early Loyalist
settlers, the Royal New Brunswick Regiment and all of our people. The red block
also contains the grey and gold of the province's coat of arms and the
regimental crest. Because the first weaving of the design was commissioned for
Lord Beaverbrook, the province's eminent benefactor, the red blocks are
highlighted by "beaver" brown.
Soil The Holmesville Soil Series is the most prevalent soil type
in New Brunswick . It is a sandy loam-to-loamy soil with less than 20 per cent
clay, and 15-30 per cent coarse fragments. The parent material of the soil is a
moderately compact glacial till. Holmesville is located in Carleton County near
Florenceville. The Holmesville Soil is a fertile soil that provides high yields
of both agriculture and forest crops. Soil is important to any location as it
is the one place on this planet where the rocks and minerals are in contact
with the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, and where the nutrients that
enter the food chain are produced and/or recycled. The Holmesville Soil Series
was proclaimed the New Brunswick provincial soil on Feb. 13, 1997.
New Brunswick has a blend of
climate typical of a coastal area and that of an inland province. Summers are
typically warm and comfortable but not too hot. Many pleasant but cooler days
are experienced in spring and autumn. Temperatures are given in Celsius rather
New Brunswick's weather forecasts are produced
from Environment Canada's New Brunswick Weather Services Office located in
Fredericton area 506 451-6001
Saint John area 506 636-4991
Miramichi area 506 773-7045
Bathurst area 506 548-3220
Acadian Peninsula area 506 336-3838
Information Signage System
Watch for the blue and white
standardized Destinations signs as you travel New Brunswick. These signs
feature bold, easy to read universal symbols to show you the way to New
Brunswick adventures, attractions and services. And look for the destinations
insignia and maps at kiosks throughout the province.
Duty Free Items (For
1 may declare a $200 U.S. daily purchase
exemption per person, tax and duty free (excluding alcoholic beverages and
2 may declare $400 U.S. purchase exemption per person,
after a 48 hour absence from the U.S., every 30 days, tax and duty free
(including alcoholic beverages and tobacco products.)
3 may include not
more than 1 litre (33.8 oz) of alcoholic beverages in exemptions per person,
after a 48 hour absence from the U.S., tax and duty free.
4 may include
not more than 200 cigarettes and 100 cigars in exemptions per person, after 48-
hour absence from the U.S., tax and duty free.
5 must be 21 years of age
to import alcoholic beverages or tobacco products into the state of Maine.
New Brunswick is a province with a diverse and fascinating
cultural heritage. Micmacs, Maliseets, Loyalists, Acadians, Irish, Scots, Danes
and Germans all played a role in creating the New Brunswick we know today.
When Samuel de Champlain and
other Europeans began to visit New Brunswick in the early 1600s, they were met
by Maliseets and Micmacs. The early French farmers settled at the head of the
Bay of Fundy and up the St. John River Valley as far as present-day Fredericton
and called the land Acadia.
Fall-out from English and French wars in Europe
forced more than 5,000 Acadians into exile in 1755. Some of them escaped to
what was then a remote and uninhabited coastline along the Gulf of St. Lawrence
and Chaleur Bay. Today we call it the Acadian Peninsula. Others returned to
France or fled to the United States, many settling in Louisiana.
In 1783 it
was the English who were refugees. During the American Revolution some citizens
from the eastern seaboard wanted to remain loyal to the English crown and fled
to Canada. So many landed in Saint John that by 1785 they were able to
incorporate Canada's first city.
Scots and Irish, pushed out of their homes
by political pressure and potato famines, arrived in the early 1800s, and in
the 1870s a few hundred Danes settled in Victoria County where their
distinctive community survives to this day. But by the late 19th century, major
immigration floods were replaced by a trickle of settlers from all over the
world. Today, although Native, French, English, Scottish and Irish roots run
deep, New Brunswick enjoys a vivid, multi-cultural and spiritual
Speed limits are posted in kilometers and permit a
maximum of 80 km (50mph) on provincial highways and 50km (30mph) in urban
districts unless otherwise indicated. Seat belts are mandatory for drivers and
passengers. Children under 5 years of age and under 18 kilograms (40 lbs.) must
be in an infant carrier or approved child restraint.THE CARRYING (TRANSPORTING) OF RADAR DETECTORS IN VEHICLES
IS PROHIBITED WHETHER THE DEVICE IS IN USE AND CONNECTED OR NOT.
Unleaded and diesel gas are available throughout the province and are sold
by the litre. There are 3.78 litres in one U.S. gallon. In case of an accident
on a highway related to the operation of a motor vehicle, the operator shall
offer assistance to the injured person and is required to give his name and
address. If total damage amounts to $1000 or over or has caused death or injury
to any person, particulars must be reported immediately to the nearest police
department. The driver of a motor vehicle meeting or overtaking a school bus
which is displaying red flashing lights shall stop not less than 5 m (16 ft.)
from the bus and shall not pass until the bus is again in motion or the lights
have stopped flashing. U.S. driver's licences are valid for operating a motor
vehicle in New Brunswick.
New Brunswick is on Atlantic
Daylight Time. Entering New Brunswick from Maine or Quebec, set your watch
ahead one hour.
New Year's Day
Easter Monday (March 31)
Victoria Day (May 19)
New Brunswick Day (Aug.4)
Labor Day (Sept.l)
Remembrance Day (Nov. 11)
Christmas Day (Dec. 25)
In the event of an
emergency visitors should dial O or 911. Medical services are listed in the
front of telephone directories and are marked by a white H on a green
background on road signs.
New Brunswick's traditional resources include forest
products, mining, manufacturing, agriculture, fishing and tourism. It is also
home to many expanding industries, such as energy, telecommunications,
environmental engineering services, advanced technology, value-added forest
products, software development and aquaculture.
New Brunswick is Canada's only
officially bilingual province with approximately 35 per cent of the population
Legal drinking age in licensed
premises is 19 years. Bottled liquor (spirits, wine, beer) is sold in
government stores. There am various private stores throughout the province that
sell liquor as agencies for the NB Liquor Corporation.
Officers of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) patrol
New Brunswick's highways and are responsible for other provincial police
duties. Municipal forces exist within most communities.
Since tide schedules change every day and vary with
location, times of high and low tides should be obtained from a visitor
information centre or by calling 1 800 561-0123.
Apogean Tide: A monthly tide of
decreased range that occurs when the Moon is farthest from Earth (at apogee).
Diurnal: Applies to a location that normally experiences one
high water and one low water during a tidal day of approximately 24 hours.
Mean Lower Low Water: The arithmetic mean of the lesser of a
daily pair of low waters, observed over a specific 19-year cycle called the
National Tidal Datum Epoch.
Neap Tide: A tide of decreased
range occurring twice a month, when the Moon is in quadrature (during the first
and last quarter Moons, when the Sun and the Moon are at right angles to each
other relative to Earth).
Perigean Tide: A monthly tide of
increased range that occurs when the Moon is closest to Earth (at perigee).
Semi-diurnal: Having a period of half a tidal day. East
Coast tides, for example, are semi-diurnal, with two highs and two lows in
approximately 24 hours.
Spring Tide: Named not for the
season of spring, but from the German springen (to leap up). This tide of
increased range occurs at times of syzygy (q.v.) each month. A spring tide also
brings a lower low water.
A free, in province
reservation system is available at provincial visitor information centres shown
at major entry points on the New Brunswick Travel Map. It allows you to make
advance reservations directly with hotels, motels, bed and breakfasts, country
inns, farm vacations, outfitters and many privately owned campgrounds
throughout the province.
13% tax on all goods and services.
For more information, please phone: 1 800
463-3030 or 1 800 66-visit (in Canada) or
1 902 432-5608 (outside of
Canada) and 1 800 465-5770 (TDD - in Canada)
Revenue Canada Customs &
Excise Ottawa, Ontario K1A-1J5
source: The Official
Free Touring Guide to New Brunswick