General Travel, New Brunswick Canada

Province of New Brunswick

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Fiddlers at the tall ships, Saint John, New Brunswick
New Brunswick Travel Guide for tourist
Last updated August 28/09

Flag of New BrunswickThe Provincial Flag is of a golden lion on a red compartment and an ancient oared galley was adopted by proclamation on February 24, 1965. It was based on the provincial Coat of Arms. The ship refers to the Maritime location of the province, as well as its former important shipbuilding industry. A ship in full sail was seen on the Great Seal of the symbols of the Royal House of Brunswick and is also found in the arms of Great Britain and of the old Duchy in Normandy. The legal authority for the flag is derived from Queen Victoria's Royal Warrant in 1868.

The Provincial Coat of Arms On May 26, 1868, Queen Victoria assigned armorial bearings to New Official Coat of Arms of New BrunswickBrunswick, consisting of a shield of arms depicting a gold lion on a red background, and below it an ancient galley in the water with oars in action. The design was based in part on the first Great Seal of New Brunswick which featured a sailing ship on water. The lion alludes to the arms of the Duchy of Brunswick in Germany (two gold lions on a red field) which was a possession of King George III at the time the Province of New Brunswick was established in 1784.
On Sept. 25, 1984, at a public ceremony in Fredericton, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II signed a royal warrant granting augmentations to the provincial arms. The additions were all symbolic of New Brunswick and consist of a crest resting on a golden royal helmet over the shield, supporters on either side and a compartment below. They were granted by The Queen, in the words of the royal warrant, "for the greater honor and distinction" of New Brunswick and to mark the 200th anniversary of the establishment of the province in 1784.
On April 5, 1989, the augmented armorial bearings of the province were entered in Volume I, page 16, in the new Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges of Canada, in a special ceremony in the Legislative Assembly chamber in Fredericton. Governor General Jeanne Sauvé, Lt.-Gov. Gilbert Finn and Premier Frank McKenna witnessed this registration -- the first of its kind in Canadian history.
The granting of armorial bearings or coats of arms is the prerogative of the Sovereign. In Canada, the exercise of this prerogative now rests with the Governor General, who has established the Canadian Heraldic Authority at Government House to administer this responsibility. The authority's officers of arms are headed by the herald chancellor, deputy herald chancellor and chief herald of Canada.
The New Brunswick arms, both the grants of 1868 and 1984, were prepared at the College of Arms in London.
Armorial bearings are both an honor to the recipient from the Crown and a means of identification. In the case of a province, they are also a symbol of public authority. Provincial arms are more formally and properly called "armorial bearings of public authority and of particular purpose of Her Majesty The Queen in right of New Brunswick."
Arms are derived from their ancient use by knights as a means of identification. The shield and crest both served this purpose, with the crests being worn by knights on their helmets. New Brunswick's crest of an Atlantic salmon leaping from within a coronet of gold maple leaves and bearing on its back St. Edward's crown, is located over the shield and rests on a gold royal helm. This golden helmet is a special mark of favor to represent provincial authority in honor of New Brunswick's bicentennial year. It is normally reserved for the arms of members of the Royal Family and of the Dominions. The mantling of gold and red, held in place by a wreath around the helmet, originally served as protection from the sun and takes its colors from the two main tinctures on the shield.
The supporters on either side of the shield are white-tailed deer with antlers, each with a small shield or escutcheon suspended from a friendship collar of Maliseet wampum, the original of which is in the New Brunswick Museum. One shield bears the Union Badge representing the British connection in New Brunswick's history and the early English, Scots and Irish settlers; the other bears the Royal Arms of France, the symbol of public authority during the French regime, and refers to the French settlement in the province.
The compartment which bears the supporters and the shield is a grassy mound covered with the provincial flower, the purple violet, and the young ostrich fern or fiddlehead.
The motto, Spem Reduxit, taken from the first Great Seal of the Province, is at the base of the arms on a ribbon and can be translated as hope restored. This refers to the establishment of the province as a home for the refugee settlers, the United Empire Loyalists, whose arrival here prompted the creation of New Brunswick by the British government.

Origin of Name:
Named for the German duchy of Brunswick-Lunenburg of King George III
Saint John
Entered Confederation:
July 1,1867
73,437 sq. km or 28,354 sq. mi.
Area Code
506 - area code must be dialed for long distance calls to areas within and outside New Brunswick
Population Growth
Year - Population
1851 - 183,800
1871 - 285,594
1891 - 321,263
1911 - 351,889
1931 - 408,200
1941 - 457,400
1951 - 515,700
1961 - 597,900
1971 - 634,600
1981 - 696,400
1991 - 723,900
Capital City
Population (1991 census)
Population Density
9.8 persons per km²
Highest Point
Mount Carleton
Population Distribution
Urban 49%, rural 51%
Lowest Point
Sea Level
Provincial Nickname
Picture Province
June 23"C- 73"F
July 26"C- 79"F
August 25"C- 77"F
September 19"C -66"F
Provincial Motto
Spem Reduxit - "Hope was restored"

Provincial Tree Balsam fir
Balsam Fir, the Provincial Tree for New Brunswick Forests cover nearly 90% of the total land area of New Brunswick. The only unforested areas are the rocky glaciated highlands, the agricultural areas, and the boglands of the Maritime Plain. Most of the forestland contains both deciduous and coniferous trees. In the highland regions the principal species are sugar maple, yellow birch, hemlock, spruce, and pine. The Maritime Plain has a mixture dominated by red spruce, balsam fir, hemlock, pine, maple, and birch. Insect infestation, particularly by the spruce budworm, has resulted in substantial losses of commercial timber. Wildlife in the forest regions is diverse. White-tailed deer, moose, and black bear are common. Fur bearing animals such as the beaver, muskrat, mink, red fox, squirrel, chipmunk, and rabbit are also plentiful. Migratory birds, such as the blue heron, nest in the area in summer. Shorebirds include the gull, tern, cormorant, and puffin. The rivers, streams, and surrounding waters abound with fish. Among freshwater fish are trout, pike, bass, and Atlantic salmon.

New Brunswick, the largest of Canada's three Maritime provinces, is nestled under Quebec's Gaspé Peninsula and beside the State of Maine. Its northern border also includes the Restigouche River and the Baie des Chaleurs, home of a fiery phantom ship. The eastern boundary is entirely coastal - the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Northumberland Strait - and delightfully dotted with warm, sandy beaches...the warmest salt water north of Virginia. Chignecto Bay and the 24-kilometre (15-mile) wide Isthmus of Chignecto, which connects New Brunswick to Nova Scotia, form part of New Brunswick's southern border. The rest of it is the Bay of Fundy. Its tides - the highest and wildest in the world - have carved a spectacular coastline.
New Brunswick covers 73,440 square kilometres in roughly a rectangle shape about 242 kilometers (150 miles) from east to west and 322 kilometers (200 miles) north to south. Its northern reaches are dominated by mountains that are part of the Appalachian Range. Mt. Carleton at 820 metres (2,690 feet), is the highest. The interior of the province is mostly rolling plateau virtually covered by forests. The eastern region is fairly flat, the southern terrain is rugged.
The magnificent St. John River, often called The Rhine of North America, splits the province from north to south. Anglers, white-water rafters and sailors also appreciate the Miramichi, Restigouche, Nepisiguit, Salmon, St. Croix and Tobique rivers as well as Grand, Chiputneticook, Magaguadavic and Oromocto lakes. (check out the New Brunswick route map)

Provincial BirdThe black-capped chickadee is the provincial bird of New Brunswick
The black-capped chickadee (Parus Atricapillus) was the winner in the contest staged by the New Brunswick Federation of Naturalists. Lieutenant-governor George F. Stanley issued a proclamation designation the chickadee the official provincial bird in August of 1983. Selection of the provincial bird was made by way of votes cast through a newspaper campaign for four candidates: the black-capped chickadee, the grey jay (commonly known as the gorby or moosebird), the American robin and the white-throated sparrow. New Brunswick's official bird is a small, tame acrobat distinctly patterned with a combination of black cap and bib with white cheeks and buff sides. Its distinctive "chickadee-dee-dee" is heard throughout the year. Its clear high whistled "phe-be, phe-be-be" is a signal that spring has arrived. Scattering in pairs in April, the chickadee nests in natural cavities, woodpecker holes, bird houses or rotten stumps which they line with plant fibres, down, fur or feathers. The male is a devoted father, assisting his mate in all the home-building tasks, incubating the eggs and raising the young. Both male and female show concern for their eggs and affection toward the baby birds.

Provincial FlowerPurple violet, floral emblem of New Brunswick
The Purple Violet (Viola Cucullate) was named the official floral emblem of New Brunswick on December 1, 1936. This particular flower was chosen through a co-operative effort of the school children and the Women's Institutes of the province. This violet is the state flower of Illinois, New Jersey and Rhode Island. The bird's-foot violet is the state flower of Wisconsin. A modest plant of some five to ten inches in height, the Purple Violet grows in moist meadows and along stream banks. Besides this violet, there are eight other species which have a purple or blue blossom. There are also yellow and white violets. The violets are thought of as spring flowers, but sometimes they flower as late as October.

Provincial Tartan
Provincial Tartan of New Brunswick was designed by the Loomcrofters of Gagetown, NB and officially adopted in 1959. It is registered at the Court of The Lord Lyon, King of Arms in Scotland. New Brunswick's three major industries are lumbering, agriculture and fishing. These are represented in the design by the forest green of lumbering, the meadow green of agriculture, the blue of coastal and inland waters, all interwoven with gold, a symbol of the province's potential wealth. The red blocks represent the loyalty and devotion of the early Loyalist settlers, the Royal New Brunswick Regiment and all of our people. The red block also contains the grey and gold of the province's coat of arms and the regimental crest. Because the first weaving of the design was commissioned for Lord Beaverbrook, the province's eminent benefactor, the red blocks are highlighted by "beaver" brown.

Provincial Soil The Holmesville Soil Series is the most prevalent soil type in New Brunswick . It is a sandy loam-to-loamy soil with less than 20 per cent clay, and 15-30 per cent coarse fragments. The parent material of the soil is a moderately compact glacial till. Holmesville is located in Carleton County near Florenceville. The Holmesville Soil is a fertile soil that provides high yields of both agriculture and forest crops. Soil is important to any location as it is the one place on this planet where the rocks and minerals are in contact with the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, and where the nutrients that enter the food chain are produced and/or recycled. The Holmesville Soil Series was proclaimed the New Brunswick provincial soil on Feb. 13, 1997.

New Brunswick has a blend of climate typical of a coastal area and that of an inland province. Summers are typically warm and comfortable but not too hot. Many pleasant but cooler days are experienced in spring and autumn. Temperatures are given in Celsius rather than Fahrenheit.

Weather Forecast
New Brunswick's weather forecasts are produced from Environment Canada's New Brunswick Weather Services Office located in Fredericton.

Fredericton area 506 451-6001
Moncton area 506 851-6610
Saint John area 506 636-4991
Miramichi area 506 773-7045
Bathurst area 506 548-3220
Acadian Peninsula area 506 336-3838

Destinations Information Signage System
Watch for the blue and white standardized Destinations signs as you travel New Brunswick. These signs feature bold, easy to read universal symbols to show you the way to New Brunswick adventures, attractions and services. And look for the destinations insignia and maps at kiosks throughout the province.
Duty Free Items (For American Residents)

1 may declare a $200 U.S. daily purchase exemption per person, tax and duty free (excluding alcoholic beverages and tobacco products.)
2 may declare $400 U.S. purchase exemption per person, after a 48 hour absence from the U.S., every 30 days, tax and duty free (including alcoholic beverages and tobacco products.)
3 may include not more than 1 litre (33.8 oz) of alcoholic beverages in exemptions per person, after a 48 hour absence from the U.S., tax and duty free.
4 may include not more than 200 cigarettes and 100 cigars in exemptions per person, after 48- hour absence from the U.S., tax and duty free.
5 must be 21 years of age to import alcoholic beverages or tobacco products into the state of Maine.

New Brunswick is a province with a diverse and fascinating cultural heritage. Micmacs, Maliseets, Loyalists, Acadians, Irish, Scots, Danes and Germans all played a role in creating the New Brunswick we know today.

When Samuel de Champlain and other Europeans began to visit New Brunswick in the early 1600s, they were met by Maliseets and Micmacs. The early French farmers settled at the head of the Bay of Fundy and up the St. John River Valley as far as present-day Fredericton and called the land Acadia.
Fall-out from English and French wars in Europe forced more than 5,000 Acadians into exile in 1755. Some of them escaped to what was then a remote and uninhabited coastline along the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Chaleur Bay. Today we call it the Acadian Peninsula. Others returned to France or fled to the United States, many settling in Louisiana.
In 1783 it was the English who were refugees. During the American Revolution some citizens from the eastern seaboard wanted to remain loyal to the English crown and fled to Canada. So many landed in Saint John that by 1785 they were able to incorporate Canada's first city.
Scots and Irish, pushed out of their homes by political pressure and potato famines, arrived in the early 1800s, and in the 1870s a few hundred Danes settled in Victoria County where their distinctive community survives to this day. But by the late 19th century, major immigration floods were replaced by a trickle of settlers from all over the world. Today, although Native, French, English, Scottish and Irish roots run deep, New Brunswick enjoys a vivid, multi-cultural and spiritual heritage.

Highways and Byways
Speed limits are posted in kilometers and permit a maximum of 80 km (50mph) on provincial highways and 50km (30mph) in urban districts unless otherwise indicated. Seat belts are mandatory for drivers and passengers. Children under 5 years of age and under 18 kilograms (40 lbs.) must be in an infant carrier or approved child restraint.THE CARRYING (TRANSPORTING) OF RADAR DETECTORS IN VEHICLES IS PROHIBITED WHETHER THE DEVICE IS IN USE AND CONNECTED OR NOT.
Unleaded and diesel gas are available throughout the province and are sold by the litre. There are 3.78 litres in one U.S. gallon. In case of an accident on a highway related to the operation of a motor vehicle, the operator shall offer assistance to the injured person and is required to give his name and address. If total damage amounts to $1000 or over or has caused death or injury to any person, particulars must be reported immediately to the nearest police department. The driver of a motor vehicle meeting or overtaking a school bus which is displaying red flashing lights shall stop not less than 5 m (16 ft.) from the bus and shall not pass until the bus is again in motion or the lights have stopped flashing. U.S. driver's licences are valid for operating a motor vehicle in New Brunswick.

New Brunswick is on Atlantic Daylight Time. Entering New Brunswick from Maine or Quebec, set your watch ahead one hour.

New Year's Day
Good Friday (March 28)
Easter Monday (March 31)
Victoria Day (May 19)
Canada Day (July 1)
New Brunswick Day (Aug.4)
Labor Day (Sept.l)
Thanksgiving Day (Oct.13)
Remembrance Day (Nov. 11)
Christmas Day (Dec. 25)
Boxing Day (Dec. 26).

In the event of an emergency visitors should dial O or 911. Medical services are listed in the front of telephone directories and are marked by a white H on a green background on road signs.

New Brunswick's traditional resources include forest products, mining, manufacturing, agriculture, fishing and tourism. It is also home to many expanding industries, such as energy, telecommunications, environmental engineering services, advanced technology, value-added forest products, software development and aquaculture.

New Brunswick is Canada's only officially bilingual province with approximately 35 per cent of the population French-speaking.

Legal drinking age in licensed premises is 19 years. Bottled liquor (spirits, wine, beer) is sold in government stores. There am various private stores throughout the province that sell liquor as agencies for the NB Liquor Corporation.

Officers of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) patrol New Brunswick's highways and are responsible for other provincial police duties. Municipal forces exist within most communities.

Tide Schedules
Since tide schedules change every day and vary with location, times of high and low tides should be obtained from a visitor information centre or by calling 1 800 561-0123.

A Tidal Glossary
Apogean Tide: A monthly tide of decreased range that occurs when the Moon is farthest from Earth (at apogee).
Diurnal: Applies to a location that normally experiences one high water and one low water during a tidal day of approximately 24 hours.
Mean Lower Low Water: The arithmetic mean of the lesser of a daily pair of low waters, observed over a specific 19-year cycle called the National Tidal Datum Epoch.
Neap Tide: A tide of decreased range occurring twice a month, when the Moon is in quadrature (during the first and last quarter Moons, when the Sun and the Moon are at right angles to each other relative to Earth).
Perigean Tide: A monthly tide of increased range that occurs when the Moon is closest to Earth (at perigee).
Semi-diurnal: Having a period of half a tidal day. East Coast tides, for example, are semi-diurnal, with two highs and two lows in approximately 24 hours.
Spring Tide: Named not for the season of spring, but from the German springen (to leap up). This tide of increased range occurs at times of syzygy (q.v.) each month. A spring tide also brings a lower low water.

A free, in province reservation system is available at provincial visitor information centres shown at major entry points on the New Brunswick Travel Map. It allows you to make advance reservations directly with hotels, motels, bed and breakfasts, country inns, farm vacations, outfitters and many privately owned campgrounds throughout the province.

Sales Tax
13% tax on all goods and services.

For more information, please phone: 1 800 463-3030 or 1 800 66-visit (in Canada) or
1 902 432-5608 (outside of Canada) and 1 800 465-5770 (TDD - in Canada)
Revenue Canada Customs & Excise Ottawa, Ontario K1A-1J5
source: The Official Free Touring Guide to New Brunswick

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